Ka tohatohahia te waikawa acetic i roto i te taiao Haina wheketere utu waikawa waikawa waikawa

Whakaahuatanga Poto:

Waikawa Acetic

Ko te waikawa acetic, ko te tauira matū CH3COOH, he waikawa monobasic waro, ko te waahanga matua o te winika. Ko te waikawa acetic anhydrous parakore (glacial acetic acid) he wai hygroscopic taekore. Ko te 16.6°C (62°F) te tohu tio. he karaihe kore tae, he ngoikore te waikawa o te wairewa wai, he tino pirau.Ka kaha te pirau ki nga konganuku, ka whakapataritari te mamaoa ki nga kanohi me te ihu.

Ko te waikawa acetic ka tohatohahia i roto i te taiao, penei i nga hinu hua, huawhenua ranei.Ko te waikawa acetic te nuinga kei roto i te ahua o nga esters.I roto i nga kopa kararehe, te paru me te toto, kei te noho te waikawa acetic i te ahua o te waikawa kore. mea ki te waikawa acetic na roto i te FERMENTATION.


Taipitopito Hua

Tohu Hua

Te kino owaikawa ahetikie pa ana ki te kukū o te wairewa waikawa acetic.Ko te whakarōpūtanga a te EU mo nga otinga waikawa ahetiki kua whakatauirahia ki te ripanga i raro nei:

Kukū (papatipu)

Molarity

Te māka

R-Kianga

10%–25%

1.67–4.16 mol/L

Whakariri(Xi)

R36/38

25%–90%

4.16–14.99 mol/L

Te waikura(C)

R34

>90%

>14.99 mol/L

Te waikura(C)

R10, R35

Āhuatanga ā-tinana:

Ira kohua: 117.9℃

Wāhi mīti: 16.6℃

Kiato whanaunga (wai=1): 1.050

Viscosity (mPa.s): 1.22(20℃)

Te pehanga kohu i te 20°C (KPa): 1.5

Taupū Whakaata (n20ºC): 1.3719

Taupū Reractive (n25ºC): 1.3698

Viscosity (mPa s, 15ºC): 1.314

Viscosity (mPa s, 30ºC): 1.040

Te wera o te whakaetonga (kJ/mol, 25ºC): 23.05

Te wera o te whakaetonga (kJ/mol, bp): 24.39

Te wera o te hanumi (kJ/kg): 108.83

Te wera o te hanga (kJ/mol, 25ºC, wai): -484.41

Te pāmahana mura (℃): 426

Te rohe o runga pahū (%): 16.0

Te rohe pahū iti (%): 5.4

Te wairewa: te whakarewa i roto i nga whakarewa pararopi penei i te wai, te waihano, te etera, te waro tetrachloride me te glycerol.

waikawa acetic-8 waikawa acetic-12

Tauhohe ki nga parakore

  1. Ka taea e te waikawa acetic te tauhohe me etahi tote hei hanga i nga acetates.

Waikawa ahetiki me te konutai warokawa:2CH3COOH+Na2CO3==2CH3COONa+CO2↑+H2O

Acetic acid and calcium carbonate:2CH3COOH+CaCO3==(CH3COO)2Ca+CO2↑+H2O

Waikawa ahetiki me te konutai bicarbonate:NaHCO3+CH3COOH==CH3COONa+H2O+CO2

Ka tauhohe te waikawa ahetiki ki nga tote waikawa ngoikore:2CH3COOH+CO32-==2CH3COO-+H2O+CO2

E whai ake nei ko te paerewa a-motu o te Repupiripia Tangata o Haina mo te waikawa acetic ahumahi:

Tūemi

Tauwhāiti

Kōeke

Moni

Koeke tuatahi

Kua whai tohu

Chroma, Waeine Hazen (Platinum-Cobalt) ≤

10

20

30

Te ihirangi waikawa acetic % ≥

99.8

99.0

98.0

Makuku % ≤

0.15

-

-

Te ihirangi waikawa Formic % ≤

0.06

0.15

0.35

Te ihirangi acetaldehyde % ≤

0.05

0.05

0.10

Te toenga whakaetonga % ≤

0.01

0.02

0.03

Te ihirangi rino (hei Fe)% ≤

0.00004

0.0002

0.0004

Te whakahekenga o nga matū pāhare pāporo min ≥

30

5

-

waikawa ahetiki-7 waikawa acetic-13

Taupānga

  1. Ka taea te whakamahi te waikawa acetic i roto i etahi wairewa pikara me te whakakorikori, hei parepare i roto i nga wairewa waikawa ngoikore (pēnei i te whakakikorua konutea, whakakikorua nickel electroless), hei taapiri i roto i nga electrolytes whakakikorua nickel ahua-marama, me nga otinga passivation o te zinc me te cadmium.Ka taea e ia te whakapai ake i te kaha here o te kiriata passivation me te whakamahia ki te whakatika i te pH o te otinga whakakikorua waikawa ngoikore.
  2. Ka whakamahia i roto i te hanga o nga acetates, penei i te tote o nga konganuku penei i te konupora, te konutai, te mata, te konumohe, te zinc, te cobalt, me etahi atu, e whakamahia nuitia ana hei whakakorikori, awhina i roto i te tae papanga me te hiako hiako ahumahi. ;Ko te lead tetraacetate he reagent synthesis organic (hei tauira, ka taea te whakamahi te tetraacetate mata hei oxidant kaha, te whakarato i te puna o nga roopu acetoxy, me te whakarite i nga pūhui mata waro, me etahi atu).
  3. Ka taea hoki te whakamahi i te waikawa acetic hei reagents tātari, te synthesis organic, te synthesis of pigments me te rongoa.

Kohinga tiwhikete

Te tuhi hiato paera

kohinga jzhuangx

Te whakahaere waka

Ko te wa mo te kawe tereina o tenei hua ko te whakamahi i te waka taake e whakaratohia ana e te hinonga konumohe mo te tuku, a me whakaatu ki te tari e tika ana mo te whakaaetanga i mua i te tuku. kia tino rite ki te Ripanga Hototahi mo nga Taonga Morearea i roto i nga "Ture mo te kawe i nga taonga kino" o te Manatu Rerewei.Kia oti te takai, kia mau te utaina i te wa o te tuku. I te wa e kawe ana, kia kore te ipu e marere, ka hinga, ka taka, ka pakaru ranei. Ko te taraka waka (tank) e whakamahia ana mo te kawe me whai mekameka whenua. , a ka taea te whakanoho i tetahi wehenga poka ki roto i te tank hei whakaiti i te ru me te hiko pateko.Ka tino whakakorehia te whakauru me te kawe ki nga waikura, alkalis, matū kai, me etahi atu. te huarahi kua whakaritea, kaua hoki e tu ki nga waahi noho me nga waahi nui te tangata.

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